A Step-by-Step Guide On How To Make Activated Charcoal

Activated charcoal is a type of carbon that has been treated with oxygen to create a highly porous surface. This unique structure allows activated charcoal to effectively trap and remove impurities from liquids and gases. Activated charcoal has a wide range of uses, from air and water filtration to medical treatments and cosmetics.

However, it’s crucial to make activated charcoal properly to ensure its efficacy and safety. Poorly made activated charcoal contains harmful contaminants or lacks the necessary porosity to effectively absorb impurities. We’ll guide you through the process of making activated charcoal, step by step, to help you create high-quality activated charcoal for your needs. We’ll also discuss the importance of using proper equipment and safety precautions during the process.

Materials and Equipment

Coconut shells, wood, bamboo, and other carbonaceous materials are commonly used to produce charcoal base. It’s important to use high-quality and natural materials to avoid harmful contaminants.

activated carbon raw material

Rotary Kiln or furnace is the device used to heat and burn the materials to finally form the charcoal. A specialized kiln or furnace is necessary to ensure a controlled burn and prevent the formation of ash.

Dryer is used to dry the materials before burning for reducing the moisture content and ensure a more thorough burn.

A grinder or hammer mill is used to crush the charcoal into a fine powder, which increases its surface area and porosity.

Each item is required for its specific function in the production of activated charcoal. The use of natural materials and a specialized kiln or furnace ensures that the charcoal is free of harmful contaminants and has the required porosity to absorb impurities effectively. Drying the materials before burning aids in reducing moisture content, which can have an impact on the quality of the charcoal. Finally, finely grinding the charcoal increases its surface area and porosity, making it more effective for a variety of applications.

Preparation of Raw Materials

Clean the raw materials: First, we should collect the raw materials, such as coconut shells, wood, bamboo, coal, walnut shell, fruit stone, etc., and clean them to remove dirt, debris, or other impurities.

Dry the raw materials: Second, we should dry the raw material at a low temperature. This step helps to reduce the moisture, which ensures a more effective burn and higher-quality carbon.

Crush the raw materials: Use a grinder or hammer mill to crush the dried raw materials into small pieces. This makes it easier to burn them evenly and create a consistent charcoal base.

Proper preparation of the raw materials is essential for creating high-quality activated charcoal. Moisture content, impurities, and uneven burning can all affect the porosity and effectiveness of the final product. By collecting and cleaning the raw materials, drying them thoroughly, and crushing them evenly, you can create a consistent and effective charcoal base for a variety of uses.


Carbonization is a critical step in the production of activated charcoal. The prepared raw materials are heated in the absence of oxygen during this step, causing them to degrade and emit volatile gases, leaving behind a solid carbon base.

Carbonization methods include the traditional pit method, the drum method, and others. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and the choice is influenced by the desired outcome as well as the available resources.

Regardless of the method used, temperature control is critical during the carbonization process. A high temperature can cause the charcoal to burn, reducing its effectiveness, whereas a low temperature can cause incomplete carbonization and a less porous final product. Temperatures should be kept between 600 and 900 degrees Celsius.

Temperature has different effects on the final product depending on the raw material used and the intended use of the activated charcoal. A higher temperature generally produces a more porous and effective product, whereas a lower temperature can produce a harder and more durable product. Carbonization is a critical step in the production of high-quality activated charcoal, and precise temperature control is required to achieve the desired results.

biomass carbonization process layout agico


The resulting charcoal is not yet activated as a result of the carbonization process. Activation is a process in which charcoal is exposed to a substance that creates small pores and increases its surface area, making it more effective at adsorbing impurities and contaminants.

Steam activation, chemical activation, and other methods are available. Each method involves exposing the charcoal to different substances and conditions, resulting in different characteristics and properties.

Steam activation is a common method that involves exposing the charcoal to high-temperature steam, which causes it to expand and form small pores. Chemical activation is the process of treating charcoal with a specific chemical, such as phosphoric acid, to make it more porous.

Activation is required for the charcoal’s surface area and adsorption capacity to increase. The more porous the charcoal, the better it adsorbs impurities and contaminants from gases and liquids. Activated charcoal has a wide range of applications, including air and water purification, medicine, and food processing.

carbon activation process layout agico

Washing and Drying

Once the activated charcoal is made, it must be washed and dried to remove any remaining impurities and prevent mold growth.

Typically, the washing process entails soaking the activated charcoal in water, draining, and repeating the process several times until the water runs clear. This gets rid of any leftover chemicals or impurities from the activation process.

To avoid mold growth, the activated charcoal must be completely dried after washing. Various drying methods, such as sun drying and dryer drying, are available. Sun drying is a natural and inexpensive method, but it takes several days and requires the charcoal to be turned frequently to ensure even drying. Although dryer drying is faster, it necessitates careful temperature control to avoid overheating.

Drying is an important step in the process of making activated charcoal because any remaining moisture can cause mold growth, reducing the charcoal’s effectiveness. Before storing or using activated charcoal, make certain that it is completely dry.

Quality Control

Activated charcoal production requires quality control to ensure that the final product is effective and safe.

Quality control testing methods include the iodine number test and surface area analysis. The iodine number test determines the amount of iodine adsorbed by activated charcoal, which indicates its adsorption capacity. Surface area analysis determines the surface area of activated charcoal, which is an important factor in its adsorption capacity.

To avoid common mistakes that can occur during the manufacturing process, strict quality control measures must be in place. One common error is the use of low-quality raw materials, which can lead to lower-quality activated charcoal. Another blunder is failing to properly control the temperature during carbonization and activation, which can lead to inconsistent product quality.

To summarize, making activated charcoal is a detailed process that includes several important steps such as raw material preparation, carbonization, activation, washing, drying, and quality control. Each step is critical to ensuring a high-quality and effective final product.

Proper procedures must be followed to ensure the best possible quality of activated charcoal. It’s important to use high-quality raw materials, carefully control the temperature during production, and perform strict quality control measures. By following these steps, high-quality activated charcoal with excellent adsorption capacity can be produced consistently.